Monday, June 27, 2022

We have discussion about Late Chalcolithic period (4500-3600bc) in Armenia

 We have discussion about Late Chalcolithic period (4500-3600bc) in Armenia. Here an old thread.

Given that the LC period samples from Areni have brides from North we can't see what was the main population living in Armenia in that period. But fortunately we have one Leyla Tepe period sample from SE Azerbaijan.
Here it's closest population.
Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LC
0.05500375 Assyrian
0.05532908 Kurdish_Jew
0.05570551 Georgian_Jew
0.05889126 Iranian_Jew
0.05911183 Iraqi_Jew
0.05970955 Georgian_Meskheti
0.06119708 Mountain_Jew
0.06183801 Armenian
Now compare it to preceding Neolithic period.
Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LN
0.03104339 Armenian
0.03205364 Turkish_Trabzon
0.03259038 Greek_Trabzon
0.03464551 Armenian_Hemsheni
0.03542676 Armenian_Erzurum
0.03863799 Assyrian
0.03870143 Georgian_Meskheti
0.04121813 Armenian_Syunik
The shift to South in Late Chalcolithic is obvious. This is consistent with archaeologic records that in that period there was a influence from North Mesopotamia. Which introduced Chaff face ware instead of gritstone tempered ware. Also rectangular houses instead of round houses. Jar burials were another feature of this culture.
It must be noted that those Mesopotamian influences are not surprising. In 5th millennia BC it was the culmination of Ubaid culture that started to have influences to all neighbours. For example in Syunik LC Godedzor we have pottery made in Ubaid manner. This offcourse do not mean a direct migration from Mesopotamia like some Georgian scholars who suggested "the so called Uruk people" . But definitely a cultural influence occured.
As for Areni. We still don't know why they have an admixture from North. But it's also visible in archaeology. The occasional presence of shell tempered ware in that cave points to contacts with regions in North. Maybe it was a just trade contact. Maybe something more serious. It must be noted that none of Y dna found there is from North. Only the women MitoDNA.

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