The new data from ancient Greece confirmed what was already known from previous papers. Circa ~2400BC migrants from north introduced high level of Steppe ancestry in Greece. Those migrants had virtually no eastern shift, which means they were not from Anatolia.
Tuesday, December 20, 2022
The new data from ancient Greece confirmed what was already known from previous papers.
Those migrants can be associated with Luwians ( such a linguistic evidence exists ) with Minoans, Pelasgians or Eteocretans. Although it is quite possible that some of those non IE groups were descending from Neolithic farmers rather than later EBA migrants.
As for Proto-Greek dating, it is far more rational to link them with Middle Bronze Age (2400BC) migrations from north. As north as Serbia and further north east.
It's probably not a coincidence that a similar event occured in Armenia-South Caucasus during the same period. This fits well with linguistic theories linking the Armenian and Greek to each other. The period between 2700-2200bc is known as Catacomb culture in Pontic-Caspian Steppe. In the current stage of our knowledge it's safe to claim that this culture was the ancestor of Graeco-Armenian branch in IE family. Other possible representatives of this branch are the Phrygian, the ancient Macedonian, the Paionians and in most likelihood the Thraco-Dacians. Although Thraco-Dacians had a more complex genesis than just deriving from Catacomb culture.
The Y dna from ancient Greece and North Macedonia shows that the Graeco-Macedonian and Paionian were related to each other and distinct from Illyrians in the west and Thracians in the east Balkans. Another member of this group were probably the Phrygians. This genetic data is in line with linguistic data.
As for the possible presence of other Balkanic groups in Armenia there is no evidence of any second migration from Multi Cordoned ware. (2200-1800BC). Multi Cordoned ware was a dead end culture because Thracians do not descend from it.
The succeeding Srubna culture (1800-1200bc) was Indo-Iranian and once more no evidence that they crossed Caucasus. Instead there is evidence that Mitanni Aryan migration was via North Iran.
It is possible that some small group of Thracians ventured to South Caucasus and North Iran in Early Iron Age (1100-900bc). We have a sample of possible Thracian from North Caucasus. In Koban culture. But those Thracians might have left a quite limited impact in South Caucasus. I am even thinking that Utians/Vitians mentioned in Greek sources could be of Thracian stock. But extra data is needed for that theory to become more solid.
Other Iron Age migrations from Balkans to Near East are the Philistines in Levant and Cilicia. Confirmed by aDNA. Also Phrygians and various Thracian tribes like the Bithynians, Treres and others. But most of this tribes left limited genetic impact. Some of them were assimilated by locals. Only Phrygians managed to create a lasting kingdom. Currently there is no single evidence that those Iron Age migrants reached Armenia. Hence the reason why the Balkanian theory became obsolete.
The Y dna associated with ancient Greek and Paionians are those.
R1b-Z2103 mostly downstream from Z2110>CTS7556 level
J2-Z6064 and G2a2b from local Neolithic farmers.
The remarkable fact is the absence of E-V13 in Bronze Age South Balkans. They expanded later with Thracians and Dorian's in Iron Age. While the J2b2a-L283 is associated with Illyrians.