Monday, July 11, 2022

This map is not from a academic paper.

 This map is not from a academic paper. It's an attempt to represent Mesolithic/Neolithic population in Western Eurasia. It's very approximate with some errors but it's better than nothing, so I will use it to describe the post LGM genetic landscape.

The Late Glacial Maximum was a major shock. When it finished (20.000 years ago) a new genetic situation emerged in West Eurasia. It was mostly shaped by geographic objects. Mountains , seas, rivers etc.
WHG populated most Europe except it's Eastern part. The most frequent haplogroup in WHG was the I2.
EHG populated most Eastern Europe. It's Eastern border are not precise but in most likelihood it was Ural mountain range. The most frequent haplogroup was the R1. EHG was in intermediate position between ANE and WHG.
WSHG populated most western Siberia and Central Asia. It was similar to famous ANE ( also known as Afontova Gora) with some extra admixtures from East Asia and EHG. The most frequent haplogroup was the Q1
There were various pops between EHG and WHG who were mix of both. One such example was the Mesolithic Scandinavia. Another example the Neolithic Ukraine.
In South
Iran Neolithic which btw was present in Mesolithic also. It's a quite basal population who's exact borders are still unknown but in most likelihood was present in Indus valley in lesser degree since the Mesolithic. I don't know any evidence of it's presence in ancient Arabian peninsula and Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia didn't have any population before Ubaid so we will not see any aDNA from there. In most likelihood Zagros was its natural western border. The main haplogroups were J and R2. Maybe also L?
CHG. Caucasian hunter gatherers. Similar to Iran Neolithic but more Northern shifted. It was living around Caucasian range and in Eastern parts of Black sea. The northern border is exaggerated in this map. The most frequent haplogroup was the J
Natufian was a Epipaleolithic/Mesolithic pop in Levant. It was quite distant from Iran Neolithic. At the other extreme of the genetic cline. In most likelihood it was also present in Egypt. It's northern border was the Taurus. The later Levant Neolithic PPNB is related to it. The most frequent haplogroup was the E1b-M35. In Neolithic period T and H2 also appears.
Anatolian farmers are similar to Natufian/Levant Neolithic except that they were more northern and has extra WHG affiliation. Eastern border is not certain but in most likelihood it was the Euphrates river. Also in it's North Eastern part it was probably admixed with CHG since old times. Western borders are also incertain. Some believe it was present in Greece Mesolithic. The most frequent haplogroups were G2a2, H2 also C1a2 from archaic Paleolithic period.
Iberomaurisian was a North West African pop. It's Eastern border is probably exaggerated. The most frequent haplogroup was E1b-M35
And finally the post LGM natives of Armenian highlands and South Caucasus lowlands. I added it in yellow color. Unfortunately we don't have any Mesolithic sample from this region. Only two Neolithic samples from Azerbaijan and an outlier from Cayonu Tepesi near Diyarbekir. Based on those samples we can say that this pop ( which by the way do not have yet a scientific name ) was an intermediate between Iran Neolithic/CHG from one side and Natufian/Anatolian from the western side. In most likelihood a similar pop was present in North Mesopotamia. Though the exact borders are hard to predict. In Chalcolithic it was present in NW Iran also. Overall this type of ancestry expanded a lot in Copper Age. The Central farmer calculator is based on this idea that most Near Eastern pops are not simply a mix of Iran/CHG/Levant/Anatolia but also have a fifth component related to Central farmers. We don't have old Y dna but we can predict a mix of J,G. Also T in North Mesopotamia. Maybe even L but this latter can be also from Iran Neo.
PS The second chart represent some ancient pops that we discuss frequently. Based on deep post-LGM ancestries.
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