Saturday, February 27, 2021

In my previous post I didn't discussed the Early and Middle Chalcolithic period in Armenia

 In my previous post I didn't discussed the Early and Middle Chalcolithic period in Armenia. (5200-4500/4300bc) This period was labeled as Sioni in Sovietic period. It must be noted that the Armenian highland and neighbouring Anatolia/Taurus regions are the places were the usage of copper starts the earliest in Near East. Another region where people independently learned to use copper is the Carpathian mountains. 

This usage of copper and the emergence of metalurgy related complex societies gave a tremendous advantage to populations living in Armenian highland. Which permitted them to expand in all directions.

Genetics confirmed this migrations.

We don't have aDNA from South Caucasus in EMChl period. But we have samples from North West Iran. Hajji Firuz Chl from Urmia bassein. (5000bc)

Distance to: IRN_Hajji_Firuz_C

0.03042969 Assyrian

0.03456162 Armenian

0.03785244 Georgian_Jew

0.03792369 Iranian_Jew

0.04120068 Armenian_Hemsheni

0.04294115 Iraqi_Jew

0.04501132 Mountain_Jew_Chechnya

0.04634031 Turkish_Trabzon

0.04701811 Kurdish

0.04774601 Greek_Trabzon

We see a similar pop to that Neolithic samples from South Caucasus. Close to modern Armenians.

In Chalcolithic this Hajji Firuz Chl expanded all over Iranian plateau replacing the old Iran Neolithic populations. Populations related to Hajji Firuz Chl played also a role in the formation of BMAC in Central Asia.

There was a theory that they reached also Indus valley playing a role in the formation of Harappan civilization but ancient DNA failed to confirm this theory. But this could be due to small sample size.

Another important migratory events occurred in Anatolia where the old Neolithic farmers were replaced by new populations from East. Most Y dna in modern Turkey and in Near East in general descend from those Chalcolithic period and not the old Neolithic. Some examples are the G2-M406, J2-M67, J2-M319 (popular among Minoans) etc. Hattic speakers almost certainly derive from this migrations.

Here are the closest populations to early Neolithic farmers from Barcin (NW Anatolia) 6000bc

Distance to: TUR_Barcin_N

0.07938035 Sardinian

0.11819878 Italian_Jew

0.11876963 French_Corsica

0.11879338 Italian_Campania

0.11897207 Italian_Calabria

0.11983777 Italian_Apulia

0.12001300 Italian_Lazio

0.12009071 Sicilian_East

0.12075352 Italian_Basilicata

0.12127949 Romaniote_Jew

As expected it is best preserved in Sardinia and Italy.

The same Barcin at 4000bc , Chalcolithic period

Distance to: TUR_Barcin_C

0.03614254 Greek_Central_Anatolia

0.03951072 Greek_Kos

0.04426700 Cypriot

0.04690220 Greek_Crete

0.05001813 Romaniote_Jew

0.05117813 Italian_Calabria

0.05302605 Turkish_Trabzon

0.05325827 Italian_Campania

0.05406675 Syrian_Jew

0.05470019 Sephardic_Jew

Clear shift toward East. Sardinia is no more the first population.

Similar events occured in Levant where we have migrations from North East in Chalcolithic period. Mostly y dna T1a1.

And finally we have migrations to North Caucasus were migrants from South created Maykop at 4000 bc.

Some of non IE languages of Near East ( also in Aegean) probably descend from this Chalcolithic events. Whether PIE was part of this migrations is still debated. But one thing is quite probable that the self designation of Armenia as Hayastan simply means Land of Metal. From PIE *heyos meaning metal, copper. Attested in old texts as Hayasa.

No comments:

Post a Comment