Saturday, February 27, 2021

Today many scholars express doubts about the existence of Medes empire described by Herodotus.

 Today many scholars express doubts about the existence of Medes empire described by Herodotus. Old Near Eastern sources are strongly contradicting to this idea. For example the Assyria which was destroyed by Medes remained under the control of Babylon and not their allies Medes 

This paper discuss Babylonian texts and make a case of Persian invasion of Urartu at 547BC led by Cyrus the Great himself. Their argumentation based on the Babylonian data is very convincing.

Later at 522bc when Darius comes to power widespread revolts starts in the new Persian Empire. Armenia/Urartu was part of this rebellion. The final decisive battle of Persians against Armenia/Urartu occured at Izalla. In the same place that was mention in Cyrus campaign at 547bc.

Assuming that this theory is correct we have this chronology of events.

640 bc. Destructions in Urartu had mostly internal causes. Grekyan makes a strong case for climatic reasons. Cinnioglu also. Hungry riots helped by Scythians. A possible Scytho-Etiu alliance. Urartu is weakened but not destroyed. It is quite possible that Erwanduni dinasty emerges from this events. 

~610bc After long period of civil conflicts the destruction of Assyria by Medes Babylon alliance. It is possible that at this period Medes tried also to conquer Armenia but besides Herodotus claims no other sources confirms widespread Medes expansion. 

547 bc Cyrus conquers Urartu. Assuming that Khorenatsi claims are correct and Tigran was the friend of Cyrus then it is possible that in this period he got the possibility to become a new ruler of Armenia/Urartu. Media is conquered by Persians.

522 bc Rebellion in Armenia/Urartu and all over the empire attested in Behistun. Darius creates a satrapy system and an Armenian satrapy is created.

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