We have new interesting ancient Y dna from Neolithic Georgia. It is H2. A haplogroup widespread in Anatolian, European and Levantine farmers but not found in Iranian farmers. So it seems farming was introduced to South Caucasus somewhere from Diyarbekir / Tigris river source region known as Sasun.
We don't have the autosomes of Georgian Neolithic sample but we have one from Western Azerbaijan being part of same Shulaveri culture. (7500-5300bc)
So here are the closest pop to Menteshe tepe Azerbaijan.
Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LN:MTT001
Fully consistent with the y dna H2 we see less Caucasian more Anatolian shifted pops.
In Late Chalcolithic (4500bc-3600bc) all historic Armenia and S Caucasus witnessed an influence from South. It is called Chaff faced ware period.
Consistent with this we see slight shift toward south.
Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LC:ALX002
Then in EBA we have that Kur-Araxians, with a shift toward Caucasus/Pontic region (3600bc-2400bc)
Distance to: Kura-Araxes_ARM_Talin:I1658
And another from Shirak region
Distance to: Kura-Araxes_ARM_Kaps:ARM002-003
So what happened in Early Bronze Age? This extra Caucasian shift is not from East Georgia lowlands for the simple reason is that it was inhabited by Anatolian shifted farmers. It is neither from Colchis region because there wasn't KA in Colchis region or Araratian plain. This shift is from mountainous regions of Kars, Shirak and Erzrum regions. It is there that some archaic mountainous population that was different from farmers started this new culture. Recent excavations in East Turkey are fully confirming this theory.
But one important thing to keep in mind is the fact that Kur-Araxians did have an uneven impact. Western regions in Malatya had little extra Caucasian shift.
Distance to: TUR_Arslantepe_EBA (Kur-Arax)
Notice this is an average but we can find some samples that have clearly Eastern origin. For example the ART018 with y dna J1 Z1842. A typical Kur Araxians y dna, found also in Velikent Daghestan.
Distance to: TUR_Arslantepe_LC:ART018
Now the most interesting story is that modern Armenians are closer to ancient Neolithic pops rather than to Kur Araxians. How this occured? We have discussed it here many times but I will dedicate another thread to it.
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