Saturday, February 27, 2021

We have new interesting ancient Y dna from Neolithic Georgia.

 We have new interesting ancient Y dna from Neolithic Georgia. It is H2. A haplogroup widespread in Anatolian, European and Levantine farmers but not found in Iranian farmers. So it seems farming was introduced to South Caucasus somewhere from Diyarbekir / Tigris river source region known as Sasun.

We don't have the autosomes of Georgian Neolithic sample but we have one from Western Azerbaijan being part of same Shulaveri culture. (7500-5300bc)

So here are the closest pop to Menteshe tepe Azerbaijan.

Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LN:MTT001

0.03367549 Armenian

0.03465252 Turkish_Trabzon

0.03667525 Greek_Trabzon

0.04118676 Assyrian

0.04148422 Iraqi_Jew

0.04278293 Greek_Central_Anatolia

0.04323291 Georgian_Jew

0.04351851 Armenian_Hemsheni

0.04424074 Lebanese_Druze

0.04427804 Druze

Fully consistent with the y dna H2 we see less Caucasian more Anatolian shifted pops.

In Late Chalcolithic (4500bc-3600bc) all historic Armenia and S Caucasus witnessed an influence from South. It is called Chaff faced ware period.

Consistent with this we see slight shift toward south.

Distance to: AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LC:ALX002

0.05500339 Assyrian

0.05570550 Georgian_Jew

0.05889133 Iranian_Jew

0.05911191 Iraqi_Jew

0.06183812 Armenian

0.06286661 Mountain_Jew_Chechnya

0.06723105 Druze

0.06790254 Lebanese_Druze

0.06907705 Kurdish

0.06970695 Turkish_Trabzon

Then in EBA we have that Kur-Araxians, with a shift toward Caucasus/Pontic region (3600bc-2400bc)

Distance to: Kura-Araxes_ARM_Talin:I1658

0.03708690 Armenian_Hemsheni

0.03957892 Georgian_Laz

0.04448976 Georgian_Imer

0.04757580 Talysh_Azerbaijan

0.04819027 Greek_Trabzon

0.04827767 Turkish_East

0.04842998 Turkish_Trabzon

0.04875369 Kurdish

0.04925671 Armenian

0.05128546 Abkhasian

And another from Shirak region

Distance to: Kura-Araxes_ARM_Kaps:ARM002-003

0.03658319 Georgian_Imer

0.04078812 Armenian_Hemsheni

0.04131813 Georgian_Laz

0.04535991 Abkhasian

0.05357536 Greek_Trabzon

0.05546674 Turkish_Trabzon

0.05583919 Talysh_Azerbaijan

0.05782868 Armenian

0.05813020 Turkish_East

0.05937031 Kurdish

So what happened in Early Bronze Age? This extra Caucasian shift is not from East Georgia lowlands for the simple reason is that it was inhabited by Anatolian shifted farmers. It is neither from Colchis region because there wasn't KA in Colchis region or Araratian plain. This shift is from mountainous regions of Kars, Shirak and Erzrum regions. It is there that some archaic mountainous population that was different from farmers started this new culture. Recent excavations in East Turkey are fully confirming this theory.

But one important thing to keep in mind is the fact that Kur-Araxians did have an uneven impact. Western regions in Malatya had little extra Caucasian shift.

Distance to: TUR_Arslantepe_EBA (Kur-Arax)

0.04114245 Druze

0.04171841 Cypriot

0.04183370 Lebanese_Christian

0.04265663 Iraqi_Jew

0.04283229 Greek_Central_Anatolia

0.04312941 Lebanese_Druze

0.04442960 Armenian

0.04473587 Turkish_Trabzon

0.04742020 Palestinian_Beit_Sahour

0.04763642 Greek_Trabzon

Notice this is an average but we can find some samples that have clearly Eastern origin. For example the ART018 with y dna J1 Z1842. A typical Kur Araxians y dna, found also in Velikent Daghestan.

Distance to: TUR_Arslantepe_LC:ART018

0.02213812 Armenian_Hemsheni

0.02349820 Turkish_Trabzon

0.02380184 Greek_Trabzon

0.02578101 Armenian

0.03230525 Georgian_Laz

0.03783821 Assyrian

0.03944226 Georgian_Jew

0.04654501 Greek_Central_Anatolia

0.04896198 Georgian_Imer

0.04997327 Turkish_East

Now the most interesting story is that modern Armenians are closer to ancient Neolithic pops rather than to Kur Araxians. How this occured? We have discussed it here many times but I will dedicate another thread to it.

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