Sunday, August 1, 2021

To avoid all kind confusion I want to say that the paper about CWC was not revolutionary

 To avoid all kind confusion I want to say that the paper about CWC was not revolutionary. It changed nothing. Except that we have now more solid evidence that the European R1b-L51 was present there. And CWC was not initially exclusively R1a culture in Central Europe. Only few centuries later it became predominantly R1a due to founder effects.

Also it followed more northern trajectory. That's why we don't see any R1a in Hungary in Pannonian plain which was the main route for Yannayans (R1b Z2103) into Balkans. CWC folks choosed more northern route via Bielorussia and Poland. And further to Germany where in most likelihood Bell Beaker R1b P312 formed.

This means Davidski beated Carlos. And Carlos Quiles was wrong about CWC being an Uralic culture. A ridiculous idea proposed only by him. Current DNA of Uralic people leaves absolutely no other solution than Western Siberian origin of Uralic speakers.

As for Yamna and PIE homeland nothing change. As Carlos himself notes there is simply no other solution for Tocharians other than Afanasievo culture which was predominantly Z2103.

Now the modeling of CWC also changed. In Haak 2015 a model was proposed that CWC was something like 70 percent Yamna + 30 percent of local European farmers. It worked well until we got those new early CWC samples. Now the most plausible model becomes something like 70 percent Yamna + ~20 percent of Euro Neolithic farmers + plus extra ancestry ~10% from local foragers known Ukraine N. 

PS Ukraine N are hunters despite the fact that they are labeled Neolithic. This is due to the fact in ex Sovietic countries Neolithic do not always mean farmers but can also mean hunter gatherers with pottery. So it's the presence of pottery that made them Neolithic not the farming.

Spreadsheet S17 from supplements.

Suhme was attested both in Hittite and Assyrian texts.

 Suhme was attested both in Hittite and Assyrian texts. In Hittite texts it is related to Hayasa but in Assyrian texts the same place do not show any evidence of Hayasa.

There can be two possibilities. 

Either Hayasa desintegrated at 1250bc and didn't have any political continuation. Political discontinuity shouldn't be confused with ethnic one offcourse.

Either it had but with different name. It was frequent to have different names for the same polity. Petrosyan proposed that this different name was the Daiene.

There is another possibility that rise and expansion of Daiene kingdom put pressure on Hayasa and it disappeared.

Ancient DNA of Alans was analyzed

 Ancient DNA of Alans was analyzed. The paper is not published but we learn from the abstract that the most frequent haplogroups were R,Q,J,G,I. This order is different from modern Ossetians (G,J,R) but is similar to what we have seen in numerous Scytho-Sarmatians aDNA.

Only in late Alan period the pattern of haplogroup distribution become close to modern Caucasian.

 From previous studies we know that the high level of G2a1 in Central Caucasus is probably the legacy of LBA-IA Koban culture with whom Scythian mixed creating the new Alan community. Other nations in North Caucasus having high level of G2a1 are the Turkic speakers Karachays and Balkars. 


Ancient DNA analysis of Early Medieval Alan populations of the North Caucasus

Content:The earliest existing written evidence about Alans – people of Ponto-Caspian steppes and Caucasus region of I-XIII century AD – is found in the works of Chinese authors who mention the politonym "Yancai" in the "Records of the Grand Historian" and in the "History of the Former Han", and of European antique authors in the middle of the 1st century AD.

Genetic data of the early Middle Ages Alans and their affinities to the Scythian-Sarmatian tribes, traditionally considered as their ancestors, as well as to the modern population of Europe and the Caucasus have not yet studied thoroughly, the whole genome data exists for only 6 individuals [1].

In this study we have analyzed ancient DNA of 70 individuals from 12 burial complexes belonging to the Alan culture from the III-XIII century AD, from the territory of the North Caucasus (Russian Federation). DNA was extracted from the archaeological material (teeth, temporal bone) of 70 individuals. We produced low-coverage Illumina whole-genome shotgun sequencing data for 63 individuals and will analyze these in a context of ancient and modern genetic variation of the region. The coverage of the genomes was 0.0004-0.3X (median coverage 0.045X and content of endogenous DNA 21,45%). The preliminary analysis allows us to assume close contacts of the Alans with the populations of the North Caucasus. The Y-chromosomal palette of Alans consisting of 5 different haplogroups (R, Q, J, G, I) started to be similar to that of present day autochthonous North Caucasus populations only in the later phase of Alan culture.

This study is supported by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation (grant № FZWU-2020-0027), the Russian Foundation of Basic Researches (№ 19-04-01195 and №20-29-01018) and by the EU through the European Regional Development Fund (№ 2014-2020.4.01.16-0125)


Murat Dzhaubermezov, Liliia Gabidullina, Natalia Ekomasova, Elza Khusnutdinova, Biyaslan Atabiev,Ongar Chagarov, Akhmat Aybazov, ‪Mait Metspalu‬, Richard Villems, Kristiina Tambets6

Анализ древней ДНК раннесредневековых аланских популяций Северного Кавказа

Содержание:Наиболее ранние письменные свидетельства об аланах - населении понто-каспийских степей и Кавказского региона I-XIII вв. н.э. - встречаются в трудах китайских авторов, упоминающих политоним "Яньцай" в "Записях великого историка" и в "Истории бывшей Хань", и европейских античных авторов середины I в. н.э.

Генетические данные алан раннего средневековья и их родство со скифо-сарматскими племенами, традиционно считающимися их предками, а также с современным населением Европы и Кавказа до сих пор досконально не изучены, полногеномные данные существуют только для 6 человек [1].

В данном исследовании мы проанализировали древнюю ДНК 70 человек из 12 погребальных комплексов, относящихся к аланской культуре III-XIII вв. н.э., с территории Северного Кавказа (Российская Федерация). ДНК была выделена из археологического материала (зубы, височная кость) 70 индивидов. Для 63 человек мы получили данные полногеномного дробового секвенирования Illumina с низким покрытием и проанализируем их в контексте древней и современной генетической вариативности региона. Покрытие геномов составило 0,0004-0,3X (медианное покрытие 0,045X и содержание эндогенной ДНК 21,45%). Предварительный анализ позволяет предположить тесные контакты алан с населением Северного Кавказа. Y-хромосомная палитра алан, состоящая из 5 различных гаплогрупп (R, Q, J, G, I), только на поздней стадии аланской культуры стала сходна с палитрой современных автохтонных популяций Северного Кавказа.

Исследование выполнено при поддержке Министерства науки и высшего образования Российской Федерации (грант № ФЗВУ-2020-0027), Российского фонда фундаментальных исследований (№ 19-04-01195 и №20-29-01018) и ЕС через Европейский фонд регионального развития (№ 2014-2020.4.01.16-0125).


Мурат Джаубермезов, Лилия Габидуллина, Наталья Екомасова, Эльза Хуснутдинова, Бияслан Атабиев, Онгар Чагаров, Ахмат Айбазов, Майт Метспалу, Ричард Виллемс, Кристиина Тамбец6

The number of inherited Indo European words in Armenia was discussed in this group

 The number of inherited Indo European words in Armenia was discussed in this group.

According Acharyan 713 roots plus 196 derived words from a total of 2200 reconstructed words.

Let's discuss Dahae.

 Let's discuss Dahae. After all Arshakids were from this tribal confederation so it's an important place for Armenian history.

Is the Dahae related to Balkano-Armenian term Dao/Dacian/Diau/Tao/Dauni meaning wolf? If yes then how? 

Dahae has no clear etymology in Iranian languages. In no any Iranian language it means wolf but at last in one language it means man , also low class men.

We could stop here but there are other theories also.

 Some had proposed that Indian Dasa and Dahae are cognates then this mean that the original form was *dasa which with regular Iranian shift s>h became daha.

 The meaning of Dasa is also quite obscure. But in general it means hostile, enemy , low class people. Some suggested that they could be locale BMAC people whom Aryans despised. Once more there is no mention of wolf. Even more this root *dasa moves further away from Balkanian dau because if they had common origin then the disparition of s needs an explanation.

And finally a theory was proposed where Dahae is derived from PIE *dhau meaning strangle from which Phrygian coined the word daos meaning wolf. In this contexts Dahae would mean stranglers. While the link with wolf is explained with neighbouring ( notice neighbouring not themselves ) term Vrkana meaning Wolf land in Iranian languages.

Btw the term Gorg meaning wolf ( from which Georgia is derived ) is a Middle Persian period term so it must have occured late. After a v>g shift occured.

My personal opinion is that the Dahae term meaning wolf is based on shaky grounds .

It could mean men 

It could be locale non Aryan tribe name which was initially called Dasa and became Daha.

And finally from the root strangle *dhau but even in this case the link with wolf is indirect via the Vrkana / Hyrcania.

Ancient DNA of Illyrian people Dauni.

 Ancient DNA of Illyrian people Dauni. Results were easily predictable. Notice we have similar results from modern Armenia LBA/IA ( R1b, I2c2, J2b2a and others ) But the most interesting thing is the etymology of tribe Dauni. 

This is just another argument that the name Diau, Tao known later as Tayk is in most likelihood derived from the term wolf. The same word is attested in Phrygian also. Also there are strong reasons to believe that the old name of Dacians was Dao.

It's an IE term, having IE etymology. Jahukyan made a strong case for paleobalkanic presence in that region. The term Diau could be another such a term.

Later Iranians used the same term wolf to denote Georgia. But in their language offcourse. 


The ethnonym is connected to the name of the wolf, plausibly the totemic animal of this nation. The cult of the wolf was widespread in ancient Italy and was related to the Arcadian mystery cult. Daunos means wolf, according to ancient glosses, and is the correspondent of Greek transl. grc – transl. thaunos ("thērion" Hesychius of Alexandria), from an Indo-European root *dhau- to strangle, meaning literally strangler. Among the Daunian towns one may mention Lucera (Leucaria) and among other nations the ethnonym of the Lucani (Loucanoi) and that of the Hirpini, from another word meaning wolf. The outcome of the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirate dh is proper of the Illyrian languages and so is different from the corresponding Latin faunus and Oscan, which is not attested.