Wednesday, January 31, 2024

According to the link below this coin was minted by the satrap of Armenia Orontes ( Eruand ) who is mentioned in the Xenophon's Anabasis.

According to the link below this coin was minted by the satrap of Armenia Orontes ( Eruand ) who is mentioned in the Xenophon's Anabasis. He was "exiled" to Mysia where he minted these coins. Later he managed to return back to Armenia after organizing a rebellion against the Achaemenid king. The Pergamon inscription mentions him as son of Artašir. We have a thread about this inscription in this group. Links can be found in the comments.

See also

Friday, January 12, 2024

Koban culture 1200-400BC

This data was already published in a Russian paper, now it is corrected and translated in English.

Judging by their autosomes the Koban people were migrants from south. In most likelihood from western parts of southern Caucasus. Their Y DNA G2a1 also supports that idea. Other Y DNA found there is the R1b almost certainly a remnant from earlier periods.
Koban culture also had steppe rich people. One of them was from north Balkans. The authors think that it was a Scythian, but I have a feeling that with more sampling we will find other possible candidates. In any case sometimes after 600BC the area was gradually conquered by Scythians and few centuries later by Sarmatians and a new Iranic people formed there. The Alans.

Klin-Yar III:ID355 Lib2al Female 0.286153
Zayukovo-3:ID72 Lib7al Male 0.042127 G2a1a1a1b1
Zayukovo-3:ID79/1 Lib8al Male 0.449777
Zayukovo-3:ID80 Lib9al Male 0.016644 G2a1a1a
Zayukovo-3:ID82/1 Lib11al Male 0.017636 R1b1a1b
Bratskiye 1-ye Kurgany:ID1402 Lib40al Female 0.338059

Saturday, January 6, 2024

Chalcolithic period cultures.

Chaff faced ware (4300-3500bc) was stretched from Cilicia to Caspian Sea. This cultural horizon is the common denominator of Minoan Y DNA and Maykop Y DNA. Their common ancestor.

One group moved to north from South Caucasus where a variant of this culture is known as Leila Tepe. In the north they participated to the formation of Maykop culture. While another group moved to Crete and Greek islands..From Aintab-Urfa region. It's also possible that CFW related groups moved to Central Asia.
This is the reason why we have similar haplotypes in both places. T1a3 and L2 both in Maykop and Greece. With more sampling from Maykop we will find more common haplotypes.
We have some aDNA from CFW period. It's Areni from Armenia and Azerbaijan LC. Both can be used for the modeling of Maykop in qpadm. See qpadm models in the comments.
As for Sioni-Adablur culture (5300-4300/4000bc) they were a different group who were adding grit to the pottery. We don't have ancient DNA from that period and sites.

The source 1. Sagona A. In: The Archaeology of the Caucasus: From Earliest Settlements to the Iron Age. Cambridge World Archaeology. Cambridge University Press; 2017:v-v.