Sunday, May 8, 2022

Armenia Neolithic sample is published. MitoDNA T1a

Armenia Neolithic sample is published. MitoDNA T1a

Waiting for G25 coordinates


https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.05.04.490594v1


A huge paper.

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Group label Sample Site Date Y-DNA mtDNA Latitude and Longitude

Georgia_UpperPaleolithic NEO283 Kotias Klde -23685 U4'9 42.22, 43.32

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO550 Vasilevka-I -9086 H2a2a1 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO527 Voloshskoe -8974 U2e1 48.305, 35.136

Russia_Mesolithic NEO202 Peschanitsa -8903 R1a U4a1 61.272, 38.91

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO545 Vasilevka-I -8879 I H2a 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO494 Vasilevka-I -8791 R1 U5a1d 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO496 Vasilevka-I -8705 GHIJK H2a2a1 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO492 Vasilevka-I -8705 I2a1b U2e 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO497 Vasilevka-I -8705 R1a U4 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO501 Vasilevka-I -8672 Q U5a2 48.2, 35.216

Ukraine_Mesolithic NEO549 Vasilevka-I -8615 I H2a2a1 48.2, 35.216

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO254 Koelbjerg -8515 I2a1b U5a2c 55.404, 10.133

Russia_Mesolithic NEO539 Minino -8107 U4 59.7, 39.5

Russia_Mesolithic NEO100 Ural River Beach -7977 Q1b H2a2a1 51.566, 53.683

Sweden_Mesolithic NEO18 Hanaskede -7925 I2a1a U5a1 58.391, 13.558

Serbia_Mesolithic NEO669 Lepenski Vir -7850 H13 44.5555278, 22.02742

Georgia_Mesolithic NEO281 Kotias Klde -7773 J2b H13c 42.22, 43.32

Sweden_Mesolithic NEO27 Bredgården -7743 I2a1a U5a2 57.742, 13.403

Russia_Mesolithic NEO536 Minino -7618 R1b U4 59.7, 39.5

Spain_Mesolithic NEO694 Santa Maira -7572 I2a1a U2'3'4'7'8'9 38.73, -0.463

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO13 Hedegaard (Bislev) -7561 I H2a2a1 56.907, 9.576

Iran_Neolithic NEO817 Tepe Guran -7442 H2a2a1 33.756, 47.097

Iran_Neolithic NEO819 Tepe Guran -7341 U7a 33.756, 47.097

Norway_Mesolithic NEO17 Hummervikholmen -7197 I2 U4 58.064, 7.743

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO91 Strøby Grøftemark -7184 I2a1a2 K1e 55.393, 12.307

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO759 Køge Sønakke -7090 I2 U5b2a+@16192 55.402, 12.367

Romania_Mesolithic NEO672 Schela Cladovei -6864 K1b2 44.635, 22.66

Iran_Neolithic NEO816 Tepe Guran -6750 J2a R2 33.756, 47.097

Serbia_Mesolithic NEO677 Vlasac -6726 R1b1a K1+16362 44.5355833, 22.0444444

Serbia_Mesolithic NEO655 Vlasac -6726 HV+16311 44.5355833, 22.0444444

Serbia_Mesolithic NEO657 Vlasac -6726 K1b1b1 44.5355833, 22.0444444

Romania_Mesolithic NEO671 Schela Cladovei -6709 R1b U4a 44.635, 22.66

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Koshinskaya NEO72 Mergen' 6 -6406 Q1b R1b1 56.019, 69.31

Russia_Neolithic NEO555 Karavaikha -6327 R1b1a1 T2a1b1 60.414, 38.932

Spain_Mesolithic NEO646 El Mazo -6324 U5b1b1 43.404, -4.707

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO521 Igren -6320 U5b2b 48.396, 35.161

Russia_Neolithic NEO559 Karavaikha -6318 R1b1a1 U5a1 60.414, 38.932

Russia_Mesolithic NEO87 Zamostje 2 -6254 U5a1 56.666, 38.016

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO116 Pad’ Tokui -6237 C4a1a1 49.8, 108.8

Russia_Neolithic NEO561 Karavaikha -6234 U5a1 60.414, 38.932

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO123 Orehoved Sejlrende -6228 U5b1b 54.96, 11.85

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO19 Røntesten -6222 I2a1b U5a2b 56.27, 10.472

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO122 Orehoved Sejlrende -6206 U5a2b 54.96, 11.85

Russia_Neolithic NEO558 Karavaikha -6135 R1a K1+16362 60.414, 38.932

Russia_Neolithic NEO554 Pogostishche I -6115 U5a2d 60.45, 38.633

Russia_Mesolithic NEO537 Minino -6102 R1b1a U4a 59.7, 39.5

Serbia_Mesolithic NEO658 Lepenski Vir -6065 N1a1a1a2 44.5355833, 22.0444444

Russia_Neolithic NEO557 Karavaikha -5962 R1b1a1 U4 60.414, 38.932

Russia_Neolithic NEO560 Karavaikha -5955 R1b1a1 U5a1 60.414, 38.932

Spain_Mesolithic NEO938 El Mazo -5928 U5a2a 43.404, -4.707

Russia_Mesolithic NEO88 Zamostje 2 -5908 R1b1a1 U5a1c 56.666, 38.016

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO600 Vedbaek boldbaner -5865 I2 K1e 55.848, 12.56

Hungary_Neolithic_Koros NEO130 Dezsk -5853 V1 46.251, 20.259

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Koshinskaya NEO73 Mergen' 6 -5731 U2e3 56.019, 69.31

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO117 Zhindo -5706 N1a2 C4a1a+195 49.9, 108

Armenia_Neolithic NEO110 Aknashen -5644 T1a 40.101, 44.294

Hungary_Neolithic_Koros NEO137 Hödmezövasarhely Kotac -5642 H5b 46.418, 20.33

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO115 Zhindo -5600 N1a2 F1b1+@152 49.9, 108

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO922 Vengerovo-2 -5599 Q1b2 U2e3 55.707, 76.783

Spain_Mesolithic NEO648 El Toral III -5574 I2a1a U5a2a 43.402, -4.707

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO683 Tybrind Vig -5571 U5a2b 55.395, 9.826

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO589 Korsør Nor -5525 I2a1a2 U5a2b 55.331, 11.145

Latvia_Mesolithic NEO307 Zvejnieki -5506 I2a1b1a2 U5a2d 57.775, 25.229

Italy_Neolithic NEO834 Mora Cavorso -5460 G2a2a T2b 41.87, 13.283

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO212 Golubaya Krinitsa -5443 I2a1b1a2 U4a2a 50.072, 39.894

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO587 Kongemose -5427 I2a1a2 U5b1 55.583, 11.551

Portugal_Neolithic_Cardial NEO632 Gruta do Caldeirao -5397 I2a1a J2b1a 39.648, -8.415

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO932 Tudse Hage -5352 K1e 55.249, 11.228

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO113 Golubaya Krinitsa -5348 R1a U2e1a 50.073, 39.878

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO209 Golubaya Krinitsa -5346 R1a U5b2 50.072, 39.894

Italy_Neolithic NEO695 Maddalena di Muccia -5344 J1c3j 43.075, 13.059

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO270 Mamaj Gora -5343 I2a1b U4d 47.433, 34.268

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO551 Vovnigi I -5336 U5a2+16362 48.122, 35.096

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO268 Mamaj Gora -5295 R1b U5a2+16294 47.433, 34.268

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO204 Golubaya Krinitsa -5278 I2a1b U4 50.072, 39.894

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Kitoi NEO199 Fofonovo -5219 Q1b1 R11 52.2, 107

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Kitoi NEO841 Sosnovyiy Myis -5206 A+152+16362+16189 58.752, 102.634

Czech_Neolithic_LBK NEO128 Vedrovice -5191 G K1a 49.021, 16.38

Portugal_Neolithic_Cardial NEO631 Gruta do Caldeirao -5185 I2a1a T2b3+151 39.648, -8.415

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO748 Henriksholm-Bøgebakken (Vedbæk) -5179 I2 U5b1d2 55.853, 12.559

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO814 Bodal K -5165 U4a2 55.586, 11.538

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO210 Golubaya Krinitsa -5158 R1 U5a2b 50.072, 39.894

Russia_Neolithic_MiddleDon NEO207 Golubaya Krinitsa -5147 U5a1c 50.072, 39.894

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO516 Igren -5146 Q1b U5a1i 48.396, 35.161

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO749 Henriksholm-Bøgebakken (Vedbæk) -5122 I2a1a2 U5b1d2 55.853, 12.559

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Kitoi NEO201 Fofonovo -5114 Q1b1 C4 52.2, 107

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Kitoi NEO843 Sosnovyiy Myis -5110 R11 58.752, 102.634

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Sredneirtyshskaya NEO75 Omskaya Stoyanka II -5108 Q1a2 T2d 54.971, 73.366

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO63 Itkul -5107 Q1a A+152+16362 52.713, 84.692

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO498 Vovnigi II -5106 R1b1b U4a1 48.132, 35.081

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO67 Ust'-Isha -5098 C2 U5a2 52.18, 85.965

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO791 Korsör Nor -5083 I2 U5b1 55.331, 11.145

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO586 Koed -5080 I2 U5a2c 56.371, 10.573

Russia_Neolithic NEO556 Karavaikha -5080 U4a1 60.414, 38.932

Russia_Neolithic_Lyalovo NEO185 Sakhtish IIa -5078 Q1b1 U4a1 56.781, 40.447

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Kitoi NEO200 Fofonovo -5057 Q1b1 C4 52.2, 107

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO304 Volnensky -5056 I2a1b U5a2d 47.95, 35.39

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO746 Henriksholm-Bøgebakken (Vedbæk) -5036 I U4a2 55.853, 12.559

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO583 Koed -5030 U5a2b 56.371, 10.573

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO149 Gorzsa Cukormajor -5028 I N1a1a1a 46.369, 20.424

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO553 Vovnigi I -5027 U5a 48.122, 35.096

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO524 Vovnigi II -5026 I2a1b U5a1j 48.132, 35.081

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO822 Dragsholm -5023 U5a2b 55.768, 11.388

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO552 Vovnigi I -5020 I2a1b U2e1 48.122, 35.096

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic_Sredneirtyshskaya NEO78 Omskaya Stoyanka II -5003 Q1a2 U4a1 54.971, 73.366

Russia_Neolithic_Lyalovo NEO186 Sakhtish IIa -4969 R1b1a1 U5a1d 56.781, 40.447

Sweden_Mesolithic NEO679 Skateholm I -4957 U5b2a1a 55.386, 13.481

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO930 Fannerup F -4942 I2 U5b2b1a 56.4, 10.714

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO507 Vovnigi II -4937 R1b U5b2 48.132, 35.081

Russia_Neolithic_Lyalovo NEO192 Sakhtish II -4892 K1b2 56.78, 40.447

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO528 Vovnigi I -4892 I2a1b T2 48.122, 35.096

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO302 Volnensky -4889 I2a1b1a2 U4a 47.95, 35.39

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO733 Dragsholm -4869 U5b2b 55.768, 11.388

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO732 Dragsholm -4862 U5b2b 55.768, 11.388

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO745 Henriksholm-Bøgebakken (Vedbæk) -4851 I2 U5b1d2 55.853, 12.559

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO911 Vengerovo-2 -4830 Q1b2 C5c 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO856 Nederst -4828 U5a2b 56.365, 10.643

Russia_Neolithic NEO172 Ksizovo 6 -4824 R1b U5a2b2 52.278, 38.955

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO145 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4799 T2c1d1 46.369, 20.424

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO529 Vovnigi I -4794 U5a1 48.122, 35.096

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO747 Henriksholm-Bøgebakken (Vedbæk) -4778 I2a1b R1b1 55.853, 12.559

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO147 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4774 J1c6 46.369, 20.424

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO140 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4766 H T2b23 46.369, 20.424

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO503 Vovnigi II -4756 U5a2d 48.132, 35.081

Russia_Neolithic NEO162 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -4731 U5a1d1 52.9, 40.03

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO300 Volnensky -4728 U5b2 47.95, 35.39

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO143 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4706 J2a T2c1d1 46.369, 20.424

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO142 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4675 U1a1a 46.369, 20.424

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO514 Vovnigi II -4673 I2 H2a 48.132, 35.081

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO502 Vovnigi II -4666 I2a1b U5b1 48.132, 35.081

Hungary_Neolithic_Tisza NEO148 Gorzsa Cukormajor -4662 U5b2c 46.369, 20.424

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO305 Vasilevsky -4661 I2a1b1a2 U4a 48.305, 35.139

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO1 Holmegård-Djursland -4644 I2 U5a'b 56.251, 10.755

Turkmenistan_Neolithic NEO310 Monjukli-Depe -4600 L1a2 H14 36.848, 60.418

France_Neolithic_Cardial NEO812 Grotte du Gazel -4595 H1 43.324, 2.42

France_Neolithic_Cardial NEO813 Grotte du Gazel -4591 H1 43.324, 2.42

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO262 Lysa Gora -4563 R1b U5a1+@16192 47.451, 35.239

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO941 Havnø -4424 U5b1b1+@16192 56.709, 10.171

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO570 Fannerup E -4422 U5b2c 56.401, 10.718

Russia_Neolithic NEO173 Ksizovo 6 -4393 U5a2b2 52.278, 38.955

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO751 Bjørnsholm -4365 I2 U5b2b1a 56.874, 9.215

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO852 Norsminde -4356 U5b1 56.027, 10.257

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO508 Vovnigi II -4354 U4a1 48.132, 35.081

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO855 Fannerup D -4349 I2a1b1a2 U5b1b1+@16192 56.401, 10.715

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO568 Ertebølle -4347 I2 U5b1 56.812, 9.179

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO569 Ertebølle -4195 I2 U5b2a1a 56.812, 9.179

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO3 Vængesø II -4142 I U5a 56.146, 10.552

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO598 Sølager -4118 R1b1 55.948, 11.897

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO522 Voloshskoe -4105 I2a1b U5a1 48.305, 35.136

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO64 Itkul -4100 C2b R1b1 52.713, 84.692

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO853 Langø Skaldynge -4095 R1b1 55.545, 10.622

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO292 Dolgoe Ozero -4086 Q1b1 A+152+16362+16189 56.2, 95.7

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO181 Sakhtish IIa -4084 Q1b2a U2e1e 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO960 Ravnsbjerggård II -4013 I2a1a U5b2a2 55.581, 11.578

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO180 Sakhtish IIa -3989 R1b1a1 U5b2c1 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO645 Rødhals -3886 I2 K1e 55.914, 11.091

Russia_Neolithic NEO171 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3885 U5a1+@16192 52.9, 40.03

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO309 Protoka -3874 Q1b2 A10 56.77, 77.03

Sweden_Mesolithic NEO260 Evensås -3872 I2 R1b1 58.246, 11.492

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO923 Vengerovo-2 -3864 A10 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_Neolithic NEO601 Viksø Mose -3857 K1a2b 55.759, 12.238

Denmark_Mesolithic NEO962 Dragsholm -3836 I U5b2b 55.768, 11.388

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO102 Afontova Gora -3831 Q U2e1h 56.016, 92.866

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO158 Sakhtish II -3804 R1b1a U2e1e 56.78, 40.447

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO195 Sakhtish IIa -3797 I2a1a U5a2d 56.781, 40.447

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO916 Vengerovo-2 -3777 K2b H2a2a1 55.707, 76.783

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO915 Vengerovo-2 -3777 Q1 C4+152 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_Neolithic NEO891 Roskilde Fjord (syd for Jyllinge) -3764 H 55.73, 12.1

Russia_Neolithic NEO164 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3719 R1a U5a1d1 52.9, 40.03

Denmark_Neolithic NEO790 Tysmose -3718 I2a1a2 HV16 55.711, 12.274

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO83 Borovjanka XVII -3714 R1b1a1 U4a 55.733, 74.285

Russia_Neolithic NEO166 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3713 R1b1a1 U5a1f1 52.9, 40.03

Russia_Neolithic NEO167 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3706 U2e1e 52.9, 40.03

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO907 Vengerovo-2 -3699 C2 A8a 55.707, 76.783

Russia_Neolithic NEO163 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3654 J1 U5a2 52.9, 40.03

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO189 Sakhtish IIa -3654 R1a U5a2d 56.781, 40.447

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO194 Sakhtish IIa -3647 R1b1a1 U4b1b1 56.781, 40.447

Romania_Neolithic NEO674 Baile Herculane -3640 I2a1b U8b1b1 44.896, 22.428

Sweden_Neolithic_FBC NEO46 Ängdala -3614 T2b 55.588, 13.113

Russia_Neolithic NEO170 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3613 U2e1e 52.9, 40.03

Denmark_Neolithic NEO29 Lohals -3609 H 55.134, 10.903

Denmark_Neolithic NEO595 Pandebjerg -3595 I2a1a2 J1c 55.789, 11.292

Denmark_Neolithic NEO23 Jorløse mose -3586 I2a1a2 U5b1b2 55.601, 11.312

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO912 Vengerovo-2 -3586 C4+152 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_Neolithic NEO564 Bygholm Nørremark -3585 I2a1a J1c3j 55.875, 9.812

Denmark_Neolithic NEO571 Grøfte -3585 H2a2a 55.404, 11.497

Ukraine_Neolithic NEO265 Lysa Gora -3585 I2a1b U5a2+16362 47.451, 35.239

Denmark_Neolithic NEO753 Sigersdal Mose 2 -3583 J1c 55.772, 12.213

Denmark_Neolithic NEO41 Rude -3581 I J2a1a1a 55.994, 10.248

Denmark_Neolithic NEO942 Tissøe -3545 T2b 55.575, 11.294

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO179 Sakhtish II -3515 U5a2d 56.78, 40.447

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO917 Vengerovo-2 -3512 Q1a2 C4 55.707, 76.783

Britain_Neolithic NEO847 Hetty Peglers Tump -3511 I2a1b1a1a X2b4 51.697, -2.304

Denmark_Neolithic NEO28 Salpetermosen syd 8 -3511 I2a1a2 T2b11 55.91, 12.307

Denmark_Neolithic NEO886 Dalmosegaard -3508 I2a1a2 H26 54.989, 12.419

Russia_Siberia_Neolithic NEO918 Vengerovo-2 -3508 U2e2a 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_Neolithic NEO866 Lundby-Falster -3507 R1b1a K1a2b 54.865, 11.841

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO184 Sakhtish 8 -3507 U5a2d 56.776, 40.443

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO183 Sakhtish IIa -3506 R1b U5b1b1+@16192 56.781, 40.447

Russia_Neolithic NEO168 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3503 U5a1+@16192 52.9, 40.03

Denmark_Neolithic NEO757 Sejerby (Sejerø) -3502 T2b 55.902, 11.118

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO193 Sakhtish IIa -3501 R1b U2e1e 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Neolithic NEO896 Mandemarke -3494 H4a1a1a 54.969, 12.494

Denmark_Neolithic NEO945 Læsten Mose -3494 H1b1 56.485, 9.827

Russia_Neolithic NEO687 Kumyshanskaya Cave -3493 R1a U5a1d2 57.58, 58.2

Denmark_Neolithic NEO933 Sludegård Sømose -3488 I2 V 55.253, 10.746

Italy_Neolithic NEO830 Fontenoce -3443 I1c1a 43.383, 13.55

Denmark_Neolithic NEO43 Rude -3442 I J2a1a1a 55.994, 10.248

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO188 Sakhtish IIa -3440 I2a1b U5a1f1 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Neolithic NEO888 Elkenøre -3439 H5 54.732, 11.986

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO182 Sakhtish IIa -3436 R1b U5b1b1+@16192 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Neolithic NEO744 Vig Femhøve -3413 Q1b2 K1a2a 55.856, 11.59

Denmark_Neolithic NEO795 Porsmose -3380 I2a1a2 H24 55.276, 11.875

Russia_Neolithic NEO174 Ksizovo 6 -3357 W6a 52.278, 38.955

Denmark_Neolithic NEO702 Jørlundegård -3321 I K1a1a2 55.828, 12.166

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO178 Sakhtish II -3318 I2a1a U5a1d 56.78, 40.447

Russia_Neolithic NEO160 Vasilyevskiy kordon 17 -3313 U5a1d1 52.9, 40.03

Denmark_Neolithic NEO935 Vibygårds Mose -3298 I2a1a2 H 55.564, 12.016

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO197 Sakhtish IIa -3295 I2a1a U5a2d 56.781, 40.447

Denmark_Neolithic NEO7 Sigersdal Mose -3290 CT H 55.761, 12.258

Denmark_Neolithic NEO597 Storelyng (Øgårde boat III) -3264 I2a1a2 U5b1b2 55.587, 11.574

Denmark_Neolithic NEO865 Lundby-Falster -3234 I2 J1c3g 54.865, 11.841

Denmark_Neolithic NEO594 Neverkær mose -3231 I2a1b1a2 K1a+195 55.391, 10.078

Denmark_Neolithic NEO961 Avlebjerg (Strøby) -3199 K1b1a1 55.368, 12.287

Denmark_Neolithic NEO599 Vanløse mose -3191 Q1b K2b1a 55.553, 11.684

Denmark_Neolithic NEO602 Storelyng (Østrup Homo II) -3189 I2 U5b2a1b 55.589, 11.576

Denmark_Neolithic NEO33 Vittrup -3189 I2a1a H2a 57.391, 9.761

Denmark_Neolithic NEO566 Døjringe -3185 I2a1a U5b3 55.484, 11.579

Britain_Neolithic NEO627 Banks tomb -3182 I2a1a2 U5b1c 58.734, -2.937

Poland_Neolithic_FBC NEO641 Slonowice -3182 H7d 50.267, 20.45

Sweden_Neolithic NEO36 Hindby mosse -3147 K2b1a 55.565, 13.036

Britain_Neolithic NEO626 Banks tomb -3132 I2a1a2 H1 58.734, -2.937

Denmark_Neolithic NEO898 Svinninge Vejle -3131 I2a1a2 K1a3a 55.736, 11.425

Britain_Neolithic NEO625 Banks tomb -3130 I2a1a2 U5b1c 58.734, -2.937

Sweden_Neolithic NEO39 Hindby mosse -3124 I2a1a2 H49 55.565, 13.036

Sweden_Neolithic NEO38 Hindby mosse -3121 K1a3 55.565, 13.036

Denmark_Neolithic NEO25 Kainsbakke II -3116 K1a+195 56.433, 10.789

Sweden_Neolithic NEO259 Frälsegården -3010 I2a1a K2a 58.164, 13.454

Denmark_Neolithic NEO925 Myrebjerg mose -2997 W1 54.771, 10.675

Russia_Neolithic_Volosovo NEO187 Sakhtish IIa -2990 U2e1e 56.781, 40.447

Poland_Neolithic_FBC NEO640 Slonowice -2950 G2a2b2a H 50.267, 20.45

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge_Okunevo NEO68 Okunevo 5 and 7 -2949 D4j 56.438, 74.907

Britain_Neolithic NEO630 Banks tomb -2947 I2 H67 58.734, -2.937

Britain_Neolithic NEO624 Banks tomb -2947 K1b1a1 58.734, -2.937

Britain_Neolithic NEO717 Banks tomb -2900 I2a1a2 K1a+195 58.734, -2.937

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO65 Kostenkova Isbushka -2854 C2 A8a1 52.724, 84.683

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO80 Borovjanka XVII -2842 C 55.733, 74.285

Italy_Neolithic NEO828 Gaudo -2796 J2a N1a1a1 40.416, 15.066

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge_Okunevo NEO77 Okunevo 5 and 7 -2782 Q1b C4+152 56.438, 74.907

Italy_BronzeAge NEO823 Grotta Nisco -2715 G2a2b U1a1a 40.883, 16.733

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge_Okunevo NEO79 Okunevo 5 and 7 -2681 U2e1'2'3 56.438, 74.907

Denmark_Neolithic NEO943 Stenderup Hage -2667 I2a1b1a1b H+152 55.46, 9.694

Denmark_Neolithic NEO580 Klokkehøj -2662 H2a2a1 55.108, 10.111

Russia_Neolithic NEO175 Ksizovo 6 -2657 I2a1b U2e1'2'3 52.278, 38.955

France_Neolithic NEO121 Grotte Mandrin -2577 I2a1a1a1a1 U4a2f 44.466, 4.766

Estonia_Neolithic_CWC NEO306 Sope -2548 R1b1 59.408, 27.026

Denmark_Neolithic NEO792 Næs -2546 I2a1a2 U2e2a1a2 54.87, 12.116

Kazakhstan_BronzeAge NEO57 Biestamak -2546 A10 52.166, 64.533

Spain_Neolithic NEO721 Camino de las Yeseras -2545 U5b3 40.439, -3.501

Sweden_Neolithic NEO44 Dösemarken -2436 J1c2 55.564, 12.946

Denmark_Neolithic NEO876 Toftum mose -2435 R1a T2a1a 55.895, 9.987

France_Neolithic NEO119 Grotte Mandrin -2432 U5b3 44.466, 4.766

Sweden_Neolithic NEO51 Kastanjegården -2391 U4d1 55.555, 13.023

Portugal_Neolithic NEO603 Sao Paulo 2 -2387 V+@16298 38.676, -9.164

Portugal_Neolithic NEO609 Sao Paulo 2 -2381 I2a1a K1a1 38.676, -9.164

Denmark_Neolithic NEO870 Toftum mose -2305 R1b1a1b1a1 T2b2 55.895, 9.987

Denmark_Neolithic NEO92 Barhøj (Strøby Egede) -2268 R1b1a1b1a1 T2b 55.403, 12.272

Spain_BronzeAge NEO649 El Toral III -2166 R1b1a1b1a1 H1+16355 43.402, -4.707

Denmark_Neolithic NEO738 Kolind -2161 I2a1b1a2b J1c3g 56.362, 10.593

Denmark_Neolithic NEO737 Borreby -2161 R1b1a1b1a1 U4b1a1a1 55.225, 11.303

Denmark_Neolithic NEO861 Mosede Mose -2161 H6a1a 55.576, 12.275

Spain_BronzeAge NEO650 El Toral III -2160 R1b1a1b1a1 J1c1 43.402, -4.707

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO921 Vengerovo-2 -2148 R1b1 55.707, 76.783

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO76 Ostrov 2 -2117 U4a2 56.933, 66.467

Ukraine_BronzeAge NEO509 Igren -2114 R1b1a1b1b U5a1j 48.396, 35.161

Denmark_Neolithic NEO878 Kyndeløse -2088 U4a2 55.703, 11.855

Denmark_Neolithic NEO872 Toftum mose -2066 R1b1a1b1a1 K2a5 55.895, 9.987

Denmark_Neolithic NEO735 Borreby -2045 R1b1a1b1a1 U4c1 55.225, 11.303

Denmark_Neolithic NEO875 Toftum mose -2036 I1 U5b3b 55.895, 9.987

Sweden_Neolithic NEO220 Falköping 5 -2036 I1 H13a1a 58.166, 13.573

Denmark_Neolithic NEO739 Kolind -2021 I2a1b1a2 N1a1a1a1 56.362, 10.593

Sweden_Neolithic NEO223 Falköping 5 -2018 I1 W1b1 58.166, 13.573

Sweden_Neolithic NEO227 Falköping 5 -1974 I1 H1a3 58.166, 13.573

Sweden_Neolithic NEO224 Falköping 5 -1969 HV6 58.166, 13.573

Sweden_Neolithic NEO261 Sillvik -1945 I1 T2b 57.736, 11.744

Sweden_Neolithic NEO228 Falköping 5 -1891 I1 H3h 58.166, 13.573

Denmark_Neolithic NEO934 Gammellung -1884 W1+119 54.876, 10.784

Kazakhstan_BronzeAge NEO900 Sjauke -1854 N1 U2e1 52.431, 76.838

Sweden_Neolithic NEO52 Vattenledningen -1816 R1b1a1b1a1 H3g4 55.503, 13.009

Sweden_Neolithic NEO226 Falköping 5 -1811 I3d 58.166, 13.573

Sweden_Neolithic NEO225 Falköping 5 -1798 U5b2a1a1 58.166, 13.573

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO93 Strøby Ladeplads -1788 I1 K1a1b2b 55.406, 12.285

Kazakhstan_BronzeAge NEO904 Sjiderti 10 -1750 C4a1 51.651, 74.654

Sweden_Neolithic NEO221 Falköping 5 -1748 R1a1a1b1a2b H1a3 58.166, 13.573

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO857 Lollikehuse -1718 I1 H3v+16093 55.758, 12.007

Denmark_Neolithic NEO860 Mosede Mose -1717 R1b1a1b1a1 K1a1b2a1a 55.576, 12.275

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO752 Madesø -1699 R1b1a1b1a1a1b U5a1i1 55.621, 11.331

Kazakhstan_BronzeAge NEO899 Gregorievka 1 -1683 U2e1 52.629, 76.727

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO910 Vengerovo-2 -1645 C4+152 55.707, 76.783

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO815 Vasagård -1524 I1 H3b6 55.055, 14.885

Spain_BronzeAge NEO653 El Toral III -1468 HV0d 43.402, -4.707

France_BronzeAge NEO120 Grotte Mandrin -1409 U5a2b3 44.466, 4.766

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO563 Bybjerg -1405 I1 H6a1a 55.76, 11.798

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO951 Klæsterupholm Mose -1356 W1 57.29, 10.033

Russia_BronzeAge NEO61 Bol'shoy Oleni Ostrov -1356 U5a2d 68.966, 33.083

Russia_BronzeAge NEO60 Bol'shoy Oleni Ostrov -1350 U5a1d2 68.966, 33.083

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO590 Magleø -1347 I1a2a1 K2a3 55.34, 11.161

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO81 Borovjanka XVII -1347 R1a C5c 55.733, 74.285

Russia_BronzeAge NEO62 Bol'shoy Oleni Ostrov -1336 Z1a1a 68.966, 33.083

Denmark_BronzeAge NEO946 Hove Å -1195 R1b1a1b1a1a1b U4a1a 55.708, 12.25

Italy_BronzeAge NEO806 Grotta Delle Mura -1063 J2b2a1a1a1a1a1b N1a1a1 40.957, 17.29

Russia_Siberia_BronzeAge NEO70 Bazaiha -802 N1 F1b1b 55.956, 92.791

Ukraine_IronAge NEO278 Kleshnya III -793 R1a U5b1a 48.966, 38.238

Russia_IronAge NEO538 Minino -300 N1a1a1a1a2 U5a1d2b 59.7, 39.5

Ukraine_IronAge NEO518 Igren -202 R1a1a1b2 U5a2d 48.396, 35.161

Kazakhstan_IronAge NEO902 Sjauke 1 -36 Q1b J1b1a1 52.431, 76.838

Kazakhstan_Medieval NEO901 Sjauke settlement 782 D4e4 52.43, 76.839

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.05.04.490594v1

Saturday, April 30, 2022

Burusho people living in North Pakistan speak a language isolate

 Burusho people living in North Pakistan speak a language isolate. Various attempts have been made to link with other groups ( Yenisseian, IE, Kusunda etc ) but non of them got a general acceptance.

Based on legends Casule has tried to link Burushaski with Paleo-Balkanic IE languages. Some of his parallels were acknowledged as interesting by scholars. The genetic data is not particularly supportive of Casule's theory. The main haplogroups are the R1a-Z93 (27%) , the L1a and R2 (~15%) Also some C2 (8%) is present in Burusho with East Asian ancestry. Genome wide data also do not support the link with Balkans. Nevertheless the branch of Z93 ( https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-Y40/ ) that Burusho have is quite remarkable. It's a branch embedded in Indo-Iranian Z93 but quite isolated and distinct distribution. It is frequent both in Pakistan and Europe, reaching the highest level in Burusho. It's interesting that Z93>Y40 is also found in Armenia. Burusho also has term Khajon denoting native speakers. This term has been compared to Greek Khayon and Paion ( p>h shift ). Obviously close to Armenian Hay. 


Is there any meaning in all this is hard to say. The time will show.


PS Below I give the link to Iuri Mosenkis Academia page because I couldn't find the original Casule's paper. Later I will try once more. Keep in mind that Mosenkis himself is quite unreliable. I just link him to see the words.

https://www.yfull.com/tree/R-Y40/that/

Thursday, April 21, 2022

An excerpt from Wikipedia about Kurgan stelas.

 An excerpt from Wikipedia about Kurgan stelas.


---

Spanning more than three millennia, they are clearly the product of various cultures. The earliest are associated with the Pit Grave culture of the Pontic–Caspian steppe (and therefore with the Proto-Indo-Europeans according to the mainstream Kurgan hypothesis[3]). The Iron Age specimens are identified with the Scythians and medieval examples with Turkic peoples.

Such stelae are found in large numbers in Southern Russia, Ukraine, Prussia, southern Siberia, Central Asia, Turkey and Mongolia.

----

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurgan_stelae


Such anthropomorphic stelas were found in Artsakh ( Karabakh ) also. Some of them having 2-3 meter height. Below You can see their pictures. They are more simplistic compared to Hakkari region stelas in Turkey ( the last picture ) . But still one can notice the similarities. The long hands and the importance of dagger. Those stelas were made for important persons like chieftains or warlords. Sometime a bowl is depicted which some believe represents the pot in which the ashes of the cremated person were placed. 

It is hard to say who erected those stelas in Karabakh. But scholars believe it is an Iron Age period artefact. Others place it to later period.

+ One possibility it was Scythians. But the depiction is not typical to Scythian style. + Another possibility is that local Urtekhians who were an Indo-European tribe living in Iron Age Artsakh/Karabakh. Later they became part of Greater Armenia giving the name Artsakh to subsequent province.


Unfortunately the current situation in Artsakh do not permit a detailed scientific research to better understand this question. If we had at last one ancient DNA associated with those stelas that could shed a light to their origins.


https://allinnet.info/archeology/first-millennium-bc-steles-found-in-artsakh/






Tuesday, April 19, 2022

A new important aDNA paper from Xinjiang region in NW of China

 A new important aDNA paper from Xinjiang region in NW of China. The paper is behind a paywall. But some data is still available.


In Bronze Age we see mass influx of Afanasievo ( Yamna related ) ancestry. Those people create the MLBA Chemurchek culture which was linked to Tocharians by some scholars. The majority of Chemurchek people were R1b-Z2103. Also few cases of Q and one R1a from a basal branch.


Later in Iron Age ( after 700bc) we see a new wave. This time mostly R1a-Z93 with some BMAC haplogroups (J,L,E,G2).

They introduce Andronovo and BMAC ancestry which was typical to ancient Iranians. The authors link it with Saka ,Khoranese Iranian speakers and also Wusun confederation attested in Chinese records.


Later in Historic Era we see apparition of East Asian ancestry (represented by Xiongnu ) related to Huns and Turkic tribes.


In conclusion we see another strong piece of evidence that the apparition of R1b-Z2103 and R1a-Z93 and some other affiliated HGs is related to IE migrations. This obviously is helping us to better understand the formation of Armenian nation.


https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.abk1534


A blogger comments


https://musaeumscythia.blogspot.com/2022/04/discussion-thread-new-ancient-dna-from.html

https://www.science.org/doi/full/10.1126/science.abk1534

Monday, April 4, 2022

We had a discussion about Corduene/Karduchoi recently

 We had a discussion about Corduene/Karduchoi recently. It is possible that it's early form is attested in Assyrian records.

An old book about Assyrian ancient inscriptions mentions Kurti/Kurte more or less in the same place as Karduchoi of Xenophon. But in modern papers You will not find this form because scholars consider them all as Quti.

The form Kurti/Kurte is mostly used by Tukulti-Ninurta and Tighlat-Pilesar kings, who ruled in EIA. So it is hard to say was this just an erroneous transcription by scribes. Or there was some real pronunciation shift in that period. I didn't dig much this issue but it is possible that in that period the shift from Kuti>Kurti started to occur.


I also would like to mention this paper from Artak Sargsyan who discuss the campaign of Tukulti-Ninurta. He comes to the conclusion that the Kuti (Kurti ) mentioned there is the historic Korduk/Corduene. 

He also has interesting ideas about the location of Nairi and the city Nihiria. He thinks Nairi is mostly in the same place as Hayasa and Azzi. The paper is in Armenian.


https://www.academia.edu/44953524/CAMPAIGN_OF_ASSYRIAN_KING_TUKULTI_NINURTA_I_1243_1207_BC_KUTI_%C5%A0UBARI_AND_NAIRI_Artak_Sargsyan_VEM_Journal_N_2_66_2019




Wednesday, March 30, 2022

An important paper about Eneolithic Khvalynsk culture

 An important paper about Eneolithic Khvalynsk culture. It was preceding Yamna.


The presence of R1b-V1636 is confirmed. The presence of the Caucasian admixture also. It was absent  prior that.

Most is R1b and few cases of Q, R1a and I2-L699. This latter is sporadically present in Yamna. The most interesting is the J1-CTS1026. A branch which almost certainly came with CHG admixture. It was also found in Yamna related Afanasievo culture in Mongolia.

The authors think that the CHG admixture occured no later than 6000bc in North Caucasus. While in Volga region it came a thousand year later in Eneolithic.


But the puzzle of Yamna is not yet solved because the most frequent Y dna of Yamna the R1b-M269 and it's daughter Z2103 is not found in Khvalynsk neither in Eneolithic North Caucasus.


https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/pz-2022-2034/html


Pics here


https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?25984-The-Eneolithic-cemetery-at-Khvalynsk-on-the-Volga-River



Sunday, March 20, 2022

An interesting summary from Hrach Martirosyan about the phoneme [f] in Armenian.

 An interesting summary from Hrach Martirosyan about the phoneme [f] in Armenian.


PIE didn't have *f. So all occurrences in daughter languages are the result of later development.


In Armenian the phonetic shift p>h occured with an intermediate stage p>f>h. An indirect evidence that the Bronze Age Armenian had *f is the Kartvelian word phoni , a loanword from Armenia *fon later known as hun (հուն river/stream bed). This word stems from PIE *pont-. The Greek pontos meaning sea is also from the same root.


In fifth century when Mashtots was inventing the alphabet Armenian didn't have an [f]. Various letters p', w, or h (փ, ւ, հ ) were used in loanwords from Iranian and Greek were f was present. 


In Middle Ages the new letter f ( Ֆ/ֆ) was introduced in Armenian alphabet.

https://www.facebook.com/groups/230828630314947/permalink/5220777014653392/

Saturday, March 12, 2022

When Xenophon reaches Pontic region there he mentions Drilae.

 When Xenophon reaches Pontic region there he mentions Drilae. A small tribe dwelling near Trabzon. Not much is known about this tribe. Later it is mentioned few times as Drillae/Driloi or one time as Dryloi. 

Hewsen tentatively ( with question mark ) link the names of Daranali and Derjan to this Drilae but this is a weak theory. He also see a link with Trel-k' which is much more robust.


Trelk' is the Armenian name of Trialeti ( a region in Georgia ) with the -k' plural suffix. It is quite possible that those Drilae were an offshoot of Trelk' who moved to Pontic region under the pressure of Cimmerians or due other event.


Why I think Cimmerians? Because Strabo mentions numerous times a tribe known as Treres, which was either a Thracian or Cimmerian tribe. He mentions it both in West and East of Black sea. Once more we see mysterious Thracians in or around Armenia. Which means that the term Thracian was used as catch all term for tribes that Greeks had hard time to classify.


It is quite possible that the early form of Drilae/Trel-k' was initially Trer-. Later a shift occured. Pliny's term Triare seems to support this assumption.


Wether those Treres/Treles came in Iron Age or they were present in SW Georgia since Bronze Age is hard to say. But some of them ultimately moved to Pontic region ( with Qulha? ) where they were mentioned by Xenophon.


http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0202:book=5:chapter=2&highlight=drilae


http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0064:entry=treres-geo

Frequently I get the same question.

 Frequently I get the same question. Why Assyrians are close to Armenians in various charts. The answer to this question is both simple and complicated.


Simple because Assyrians do have extra non Levantine ancestry which pulls them away from other Levantine people. And make close to Armenians. Which btw is also visible in Y dna structure of Assyrians.


But it's also complicated because one should understand that history of an ethnic group do not stop in Iron Age. So one must learn the whole history how Arameans initially living Syria became modern Assyrians. Morever an ethnic group over time can transform into ethno-religious group which can affect seriously the genetic structure of that population. This part is beyond the scope of this thread. So my point will be genetic.


The first PCA shows the relative position of Assyrians marked as Arameans. Notice if they had simply Armenian admixture they would be between Levant and Armenia. But they have also a shift toward Iranian pops. Which means that they have extra Iranian ancestry or something related to them. In the second PCA it's visible that Georgian Jews also plot in the same place as Assyrians. 


This fits well with the geographic position of Assyrians (NW Iran, North Iraq, East Turkey etc) It must be noted that North Iraq probably had witnessed number of migrations from Iran (Gutians, Carduchoi , Turukeans etc ) So that region almost certainly had an extra Iranian shift before the arrival of real Iranians in Iron Age. As for Jews there are historic records mentioning Adiabene people and even some Iranian nobility converting to Judaism ( like Amatuni ) Good knowledge of history is needed for better understanding this genetic results.




Wednesday, March 9, 2022

Few comments about Y dna and language correlation

 Few comments about Y dna and language correlation. We know that ancient America was populated by a very limited number of Y dna more than 15.000 years ago. Mostly few branches of Q1b. Yet the linguistic diversity of pre Columbian America is huge. Here an excerpt from Wikipedia.


------


Over a thousand indigenous languages are spoken by the Indigenous peoples of the Americas. These languages cannot all be demonstrated to be related to each other and are classified into a hundred or so language families (including a large number of language isolates), as well as a number of extinct languages that are unclassified due to a lack of data.


-----


This diversity is impossible to explain by new migration. Only two new migrations are known to have occured later. One of which introduced Na-Dene languages ( famous Apaches ) with the Y dna C2. While the other introduced Eskimo- Aleut languages with Q1a? branch. Those two migrations occured less than 6000 years ago and some believe that Na-Dene still preserved a connection with a Siberian isolate known as Kets.


What this mean for linguistics and genetics? This mean that linguistic has its inherent limitations. After 10.000 year of separation two related languages accumulate so many random phonetic shifts that it is practically impossible to reconstruct their common vocabulary.

This is especially true if languages are illiterate and do not have developed religions and sacred languages. Are mobile hunters. A similar situation can be expected in Paleolithic West Eurasia. Though higher population density in Near East probably made languages more stable. But in any case even if two languages descend from G2 rich pop then some 15.000-20.000 years later it would be impossible to prove their genetic link.


https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_languages_of_the_Americas

Tuesday, March 1, 2022

Comparison to ancient Arslantepe (Malatya) samples.

 Comparison to ancient Arslantepe (Malatya) samples. The transition from Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age made all that region near upper Euphrates and North Mesopotamia more closer to modern Armenians. Especially the Urfa Armenians. Obviously this is related to Kur-Araxians migrations.

Titris Hoyuk also was affected. But the overall change is not high.



Sunday, February 27, 2022

We have new regional data from Urfa

 We have new regional data from Urfa. Thanks to Sunshine Shoghig Shahinian who provided the files. The data was analyzed by Robert Navoyan and me.


1/ The first chart shows the closest populations to Armenians from Urfa. As expected the Armenian average is one of the closest. But Erzurum is slightly closer.


2/ The ancestry proportions in the second image shows that Urfa Armenians have similar structure compared with other subgroups. The main difference is the slightly higher South Anatolian Neolithic ancestry which is consistent with their geographic position. They have also lower Steppe which makes sense given the distance from Caucasian range. To my surprise they don't have extra Levantine ancestry. Their Levantine ancestry is equal to Erzurum ( from Javakhk ) levels which is quite interesting. Because it can mean that in the past Euphrates was used to move to North from Upper Mesopotamia. It's also consistent with the fact that the kingdom Dayene/Diaukhi in Nairi was initially in the south then moved to North toward Erzurum region. Though this result can be the consequence of earlier or later events.


3/ The third image is a PCA. Consistent with the previous analysis the Armenian_Urfa has a slight shift toward west/Anatolia and partly overlaps with Greek_Cappadocia. Despite similarities with Assyrians in Gedmatch the Urfa Armenians are not pulled toward Assyrians. 


4/ And finally we wanted to compare Urfa Armenians with an ancient DNA from Titris Hoyuk Early Bronze Age. This site is close to Urfa. Well it turns out that the closest modern pop to a local Bronze Age sample are the Urfa Armenians. This is a remarkable finding. It must be noted that this do not mean that no any migration occured since EBA. They almost certainly occured simply those migrants were not very different from Titris Hoyuk.


Also one should not confuse this result with the closest ancient DNA to Urfa Armenians. The closest aDNA to Urfans is still the South Caucasian Neolithic like for all other Armenians. This type of ancestry which we label Central farmers was present all over historic Armenia. And Cayonu008 sample showed that it was present near Urfa also since the Neolithic. But this a subject for different topic.


Distance to: Armenian_Urfa

0.03081703 AZE_Caucasus_lowlands_LN

0.03462119 IND_Roopkund_B_o

0.03468724 TUR_Arslantepe_EBA

0.03706614 IRN_Hajji_Firuz_C

0.03929593 TUR_Arslantepe_LC

0.04178189 TUR_Alalakh_MLBA

0.04550224 TUR_Ikiztepe_LC

0.05022027 SYR_Ebla_EMBA

0.05031025 TUR_Titris_Hoyuk_EBA

0.05114875 TUR_Ovaoren_EBA


PS I want also to thank Tsolig Shahinian for her activism.






Monday, February 14, 2022

Strabo reports that in ancient times there was a large lake ( sea ) in Araratian plain.

 Strabo reports that in ancient times there was a large lake ( sea ) in Araratian plain. It must be added that this is true. But it was in Neolithic times and not in Iron Age. Somehow the memory about this lake was kept. 

Then it disappeared. Maybe due to earthquakes? Who knows.

----


The Araxes also in Armenia, descending from the mountains, is said to have spread itself in ancient times, and to have overflowed the plains, like a sea, having no outlet; that Jason, in imitation of what is to be seen at Tempe, made the opening through which the water at present precipitates itself into the Caspian Sea; that upon this the Araxenian plain, through which the river flows to the cataract, became uncovered. This story which is told of the river Araxes contains some probability; that of Herodotus15 none whatever. For he says that, after flowing out of the country of the Matiani, it is divided into forty rivers, and separates the Scythians from the Bactrians. Callisthenes has followed Herodotus. [14]

http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0239%3Abook%3D11%3Achapter%3D14#note-link15



Tuesday, February 1, 2022

The name Urdi is attested in Urartian cuneiform texts.

 The name Urdi is attested in Urartian cuneiform texts. It matches perfectly to Armenian word ordi (որդի) meaning son, offspring. This is a native Armenian word. Cognate of Greek portis and Sanskrit prthuka.


There was also a noble family Orduni whose name also could have been derived from the same root.


If this Urartian name is really related to the Armenian word this could mean that the p>h shift had already occured in Armenian language before Urartian period.


https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/%CF%80%CF%8C%CF%81%CF%84%CE%B9%CF%82


https://hy.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D5%88%D6%80%D5%A4%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%B6%D5%AB%D5%B6%D5%A5%D6%80

Thursday, January 27, 2022

We have Syunik regional files in G25 format

 We have Syunik regional files in G25 format.  Special thanks to Mher Ishkhanyan for providing the files and Robert Navoyan for his perseverance for pushing forward the process.

I updated the Davidski's standard model for our purposes. I added two new pops Central-Farmers and CHG. And removed the Kura-Araxes because it's a late and composite pop.


Syunik Armenians are close to other Armenians. Which is another evidence that modern Armenians are quite tightly connected to each other people. 

They have their own peculiarities which were partly predicted in my Gedmatch analysis. They have slightly more Steppe and less Levantine affinity than the average. This difference almost certainly is the distant echo of Iron Age situation, and do not represent any important recent event. 

Events that could have affected Syunik gene pool in post EIA historic times are the influences from Iran, which is well known.  You can notice higher Zagros. It is this high Zagros coupled with Steppe that makes Udi closer to Syunik Armenians and not the CHG. As one can easily note Udis have quite low CHG compared to Daghestani speaking Laks. Which once more confirms the fact that current Udi gene pool do not represent a genuine Daghestani ancestry. 


Finally I add the RISE397 sample from EIA Syunik just prior Urartian expansion. The main changes that occured in Urartian and later periods are the increase of Zagros and Anatolian ancestry in Syunik at the expense of Steppe. In most likelihood this change is due to mysterious Biainili people influence.


Target: ARM_LBA:RISE397

Distance: 3.5825% / 0.03582465

67.6 Central-farmer_AZE_LN

27.8 Yamnaya_RUS_Samara

1.6 IRN_Zagros_N

...

0.4 TUR_Anatolia-South_N


And Etiuni, Lchashen.


Target: ARM_LBA

Distance: 2.1074% / 0.02107436

60.6 Central-farmer_AZE_LN

30.4 Yamnaya_RUS_Samara

5.0 GEO_CHG

1.6 IRN_Zagros_N

0.8 TUR_Anatolia-South_N

....


PS Syunik average was made with 11 samples.




Wednesday, January 19, 2022

The excerpts are from Klimov's Etymological dictionary of Kartvelian languages.

 The excerpts are from Klimov's Etymological dictionary of Kartvelian languages. The proposed age of Proto-Kartvelian divergence is 4200 years before present. Others proposed slightly higher ages. Anyway it's safe to assume that it occured in Middle Bronze Age.

The first separation are Svans. Later Zan languages separated from Georgian ( or Kartli ) at 2600 years ago. While in medieval period Zan itself splits to Mingrelian and Laz. 

Georgian was the language spoken in historic Iberia. Which in medieval period expanded thanks to the emergence of unified Georgian kingdom under the rule of Bagratids. 

With current genetic and archaeological data combined the most likely place of proto Kartvelian divergence might be in Western Georgia in Bronze Age. Where they were dwelling before Bronze Age is a different subject. But in most likelihood their ultimate origin is in Fertile Crescent.


Gamkrelidze proposed a slightly Eastern homeland but current genetic data do not support that. First we can't place their divergence homeland in Eastern Georgia because in Western Georgia there is no Steppe ancestry. While Eastern Georgia might have a lot of it in MBA. If a migration from East to West occured in MBA that would definitely had left traces.

The other reason is the archaeology. Eastern Georgia had Kur-Araxian culture in EBA and Trialeti-Vanadzor in MBA. Non of this culture fits for Proto Kartvelian homeland.


Some believe that proto Kartvelian homeland was more southern toward Anatolia. But that's also is not feasible. Given that modern Western Georgians have excessive affinity to Eneolithic western Caucasus (CHG rich ) and less to Anatolia. Should an important migration from South to North have occured they would have more Anatolian ancestry than they have today. Which is not the case. Also their popular Y dna do not fit this theory.

So we are left with the only one solution. To place them in Western Georgia. 


Nevertheless this theory is not without problems. Because in Western Georgia there is also evidence of ancient NWC like onomastic. Gamkrelidze mentions evidence of NWC like substrate in Svans. Also there are very few hydronymes with obvious Kartvelian etymology. One of such a Kartvelian name according Klimov is Chorokh which appears in Greek sources much later than the Akampsis/Boas names. 


One solution to overcome those contradictions is to imagine that NWC related groups were initially more prevalent in coastal regions while Kartvelian were in mountain regions of Western Georgia. Later they expanded toward coastal regions. It is probably during those expansions that the term Sanni ( or Tsanni ) appears in Greek texts.






Saturday, January 15, 2022

Urartian hieroglyphs

 Urartian hieroglyphs. (first column)

Urartu used not only cuneiform writing system but also hieroglyphic. They were similar to Hittite-Luwian ( first picture second column) but not identic to them. 

The script is not deciphered. But some basic understanding what they represent is known.


Some of this (not all) symbols reached Medieval Armenian period. A set of symbols were used for short writing called Meaningful Symbols (Նշանագիրք Իմաստնոց). The last column of first image. Although Acharyan was critical about the idea that those symbols were directly from pagan times. 


The map represents sites were those hieroglyphs were found. Luwian hieroglyphs ( rectangle ) are mostly west of Euphrates. While most of Urartian hieroglyphs are found in modern Armenia ( Etiuni ).






Wednesday, January 12, 2022

List of geographic terms attested in Hittite cuneiform texts.

 List of geographic terms attested in Hittite cuneiform texts.

Some names have multiple variants. With somewhat different suffixes. Some roots can create different toponyms. Like the wiyan meaning wine.


But the most important thing is the absence of such a term as Azzi-Hayasa or Hayasa-Azzi in cuneiform texts.

Both terms are separate with their own determinant URU. Forlanini do not use Hayasa-Azzi but mentions them separately claiming that Azzi was a different name for Hayasa introduced in Mursili 2 period. He treats them as synonyms of same kingdom. 


They are other interesting toponyms there that I will discuss later.


https://cuneiform.neocities.org/HGN/list.html




Friday, January 7, 2022

When Arabs conquered Armenia and Caucasus a new administrative and political unit formed known as Emirate of Armenia.

 When Arabs conquered Armenia and Caucasus a new administrative and political unit formed known as Emirate of Armenia. This Emirate was divided itself to four subunits. Armenia I, II , III and also the special Emirate of Tiflis/Tbilisi. The internal borders were mostly the same as during the division of Armenia at 387 by Rome and Persia. So they not reflect necessarily ethnic borders but rather the political choices of Sassanian Persia. In fact it is during this period that the last Caucasian Albanian texts were written.While with the emergence of Tiflis Emirate many Iberians moved to west, where the nucleus of future unified Georgian kingdom emerged in the form of Tao-Klarjeti curopalate/kingdom.


Initially the Emirs were Armenians but later Arab Emirs were appointed.

Anyway the Emirate was enjoying large degree of autonomy.


The second map is the detailed one of the first. With Araibc terms. Made by Hewsen. While the third is the situation in 4th century made by the historian Armen Ayvazyan. It describes the lands that the four neighbors of Armenia, got from that division, which is known as Peace of Acilisene. Also important battles of 5th century. The most famous being the Avarayr battle.





Thursday, January 6, 2022

This stone with unknown cuneiform was found in Karmir Berd ( do not confuse it with Karmir Blur ) site

 This stone with unknown cuneiform was found in Karmir Berd ( do not confuse it with Karmir Blur ) site. In Early Iron Age layers (1100-850bc) at the foundation of cyclopean fort.

It was first published in 1976. Later two other similar inscriptions where found. One from modern Armenia the other from Nakhichevan region of Azerbaijan.

The cuneiforms are different from Urartian one and in most likelihood are based on alphabetic system rather than syllabic.

Artak Movsisyan assumed that it was an alphabetic writing system invented by locals. Other known alphabetic cuneiform systems are the Ugaritic and Persian. But this one is not related to them.