Saturday, May 20, 2023

Arslantepe (Malatya) Late Chalcolithic - Early Bronze Age.

 Arslantepe (Malatya) Late Chalcolithic - Early Bronze Age. From Skourtanioti 2020.

R1b is from the V1636 branch. Not the common M269

Monday, May 8, 2023

The origins of Hasanlu_IA and it's possible affiliation with Mannaeans.

 The origins of Hasanlu_IA and it's possible affiliation with Mannaeans.

We have now a large number of samples from Urmia basin in North West Iran to test some theories. First I want to note that the Bronze Age of NW Iran has one of the most complex genetic stories in West Asia. Multiple influences from different directions.
Despite this complexity a coherent picture is possible to recover with a scrutinous approach.
Hasanlu_IA is remarkable because it is a predominantly R1b site spanning from 1250BC to 650BC. This high level of R1b (~75%) contrast with the complete absence of R1b in Bronze Age period of Dinkha tepe and Hasanlu. So a question arises. From where do they come and who they are?
Genome wide analysis shows that Hasanlu_IA is a predominantly Dinkha tepe BIA A. This BIA A is the Khabur ware from North Mesopotamia that entered Urmia basin around 2000 BC. It's linguistic association are the Hurrians. The BIA A period do not have any R1b so the R1b is not from that side.
The second most important component is the Karashamb from modern Armenia. This site was predominantly R1b. It is quite possible that the real source of R1b in Hasanlu was not the Karashamb itself but an unsampled site of Urmia ware like the Haftavan or something more northern.
The third component is the Dinkha tepe BIA B. It's a very Iran Neo shifted pop from Eastern Central regions of Iran. It is absolutely unrelated to BIA A. This period is known as Early Western Gray Ware. This Gray Ware is an important subject and deserve a special thread. Here I will add that I think it's related to Kassitic expansion in Iran and further west to Mesopotamia. BIA B didn't have any R1b. Although it has some low level of Steppe ancestry.
And finally the fourth component is the singleton from Hasanlu_LBA_A. I have a thread about this sample. Without much doubt it is related to Mitanni Aryans migrations from East to West. Chances that R1b in Hasanlu is from this side are quite low.
In sum we can say that Hasanlu_IA is a secondary expansion of R1b-Z2103 in Iron Age. It is different from preceding cultures. It's origins are either from South Caucasian sites, either from an unsampled Van-Urmia ware type sites inside Urmia basin. As I said we don't have any Van-Urmia sample ( Haftavan for example) so we can make only guesstimates.
What language was speaking this Hasanlu IA? Everything is possible. A dialect of Hurrian is possible. An IE language of Armenic affiliation is also possible. Kassitic or some unknown non IE language is also possible. And finally an Indo Iranian adstrate/influence was almost certainly present there.
During Iron Age period a Manna kingdom emerges in that region of south Urmia. Some scholars linked Hasanlu IA with Mannaeans. But other polities are also mentioned in that region. So it is hard to say with certitude who they were. But if other sites associated with Manna yield the same result then we can make some interesting conclusions

Thursday, May 4, 2023

A cuneiform inscription on a artefact from Kapan museum in Syunik.

 A cuneiform inscription on a artefact from Kapan museum in Syunik. Left by the king Argishti. This would be the most southern inscription found in the territory of modern RoA

Tuesday, May 2, 2023

Neolithic farmers of West Asia

 Neolithic farmers of West Asia. As You can see South Caucasian farmers are in the middle of CHG and Anatolian farmers. Hence the reason to call them Central farmers. They were predominantly J2. Also one case of H2 from Georgia.

Mardin and Nemrik farmers are in the same position but slightly southern shifted. In this context it means on the right side. But overall they share a lot of ancestry with each other.
Most interesting questions that are waiting their answers are those.
+Why West Asia had a such two divergent groups?
+Why it's specifically the central type that expanded a lot, inside West Asia?
+To whom was close the original population of West Asia? Those who lived 40-30 thousands years ago before the LGM.
The source Lazaridis 2022