In my previous post I didn't discussed the Early and Middle Chalcolithic period in Armenia. (5200-4500/4300bc) This period was labeled as Sioni in Sovietic period. It must be noted that the Armenian highland and neighbouring Anatolia/Taurus regions are the places were the usage of copper starts the earliest in Near East. Another region where people independently learned to use copper is the Carpathian mountains.
This usage of copper and the emergence of metalurgy related complex societies gave a tremendous advantage to populations living in Armenian highland. Which permitted them to expand in all directions.
Genetics confirmed this migrations.
We don't have aDNA from South Caucasus in EMChl period. But we have samples from North West Iran. Hajji Firuz Chl from Urmia bassein. (5000bc)
Distance to: IRN_Hajji_Firuz_C
We see a similar pop to that Neolithic samples from South Caucasus. Close to modern Armenians.
In Chalcolithic this Hajji Firuz Chl expanded all over Iranian plateau replacing the old Iran Neolithic populations. Populations related to Hajji Firuz Chl played also a role in the formation of BMAC in Central Asia.
There was a theory that they reached also Indus valley playing a role in the formation of Harappan civilization but ancient DNA failed to confirm this theory. But this could be due to small sample size.
Another important migratory events occurred in Anatolia where the old Neolithic farmers were replaced by new populations from East. Most Y dna in modern Turkey and in Near East in general descend from those Chalcolithic period and not the old Neolithic. Some examples are the G2-M406, J2-M67, J2-M319 (popular among Minoans) etc. Hattic speakers almost certainly derive from this migrations.
Here are the closest populations to early Neolithic farmers from Barcin (NW Anatolia) 6000bc
Distance to: TUR_Barcin_N
As expected it is best preserved in Sardinia and Italy.
The same Barcin at 4000bc , Chalcolithic period
Distance to: TUR_Barcin_C
Clear shift toward East. Sardinia is no more the first population.
Similar events occured in Levant where we have migrations from North East in Chalcolithic period. Mostly y dna T1a1.
And finally we have migrations to North Caucasus were migrants from South created Maykop at 4000 bc.
Some of non IE languages of Near East ( also in Aegean) probably descend from this Chalcolithic events. Whether PIE was part of this migrations is still debated. But one thing is quite probable that the self designation of Armenia as Hayastan simply means Land of Metal. From PIE *heyos meaning metal, copper. Attested in old texts as Hayasa.
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